Blue Flower

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Номинация "Перевод экономического текста" 

How Globalization Affects Developed Countries

By Nicolas Pologeorgis 

The phenomenon of globalization began in a primitive form when humans first settled into different areas of the world; however, it has shown a rather steady and rapid progress in recent times and has become an international dynamic which, due to technological advancements, has increased in speed and scale, so that countries in all five continents have been affected and engaged.

What Is Globalization?

Globalization is defined as a process that, based on international strategies, aims to expand business operations on a worldwide level, and was precipitated by the facilitation of global communications due to technological advancements, and socioeconomic, political and environmental developments.

The goal of globalization is to provide organizations a superior competitive position with lower operating costs, to gain greater numbers of products, services and consumers. This approach to competition is gained via diversification of resources, the creation and development of new investment opportunities by opening up additional markets, and accessing new raw materials and resources. Diversification of resources is a business strategy that increases the variety of business products and services within various organizations. Diversification strengthens institutions by lowering organizational risk factors, spreading interests in different areas, taking advantage of market opportunities, and acquiring companies both horizontal and vertical in nature.

Industrialized or developed nations are specific countries with a high level of economic development and meet certain socioeconomic criteria based on economic theory, such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrialization and human development index (HDI) as defined by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United Nations (UN) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Using these definitions, some industrialized countries in 2016 are: United Kingdom, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States.

Components of Globalization

The components of globalization include GDP, industrialization and the Human Development Index (HDI). The GDP is the market value of all finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a year, and serves as a measure of a country’s overall economic output. Industrialization is a process which, driven by technological innovation, effectuates social change and economic development by transforming a country into a modernized industrial, or developed nation. The Human Development Index comprises three components: a country’s population’s life expectancy, knowledge and education measured by the adult literacy, and income.

The degree to which an organization is globalized and diversified has bearing on the strategies that it uses to pursue greater development and investment opportunities.

The Economic Impact on Developed Nations

Globalization compels businesses to adapt to different strategies based on new ideological trends that try to balance rights and interests of both the individual and the community as a whole. This change enables businesses to compete worldwide and also signifies a dramatic change for business leaders, labor and management by legitimately accepting the participation of workers and government in developing and implementing company policies and strategies. Risk reduction via diversification can be accomplished through company involvement with international financial institutions and partnering with both local and multinational businesses.

Globalization brings reorganization at the international, national and sub-national levels. Specifically, it brings the reorganization of production, international trade and the integration of financial markets. This affects capitalist economic and social relations, via multilateralism and microeconomic phenomena, such as business competitiveness, at the global level. The transformation of production systems affects the class structure, the labor process, the application of technology and the structure and organization of capital. Globalization is now seen as marginalizing the less educated and low-skilled workers. Business expansion will no longer automatically imply increased employment. Additionally, it can cause high remuneration of capital, due to its higher mobility compared to labor.

The phenomenon seems to be driven by three major forces: globalization of all product and financial markets, technology and deregulation. Globalization of product and financial markets refers to an increased economic integration in specialization and economies of scale, which will result in greater trade in financial services through both capital flows and cross-border entry activity. The technology factor, specifically telecommunication and information availability, has facilitated remote delivery and provided new access and distribution channels, while revamping industrial structures for financial services by allowing entry of non-bank entities, such as telecoms and utilities.

Deregulation pertains to the liberalization of capital account and financial services in products, markets and geographic locations. It integrates banks by offering a broad array of services, allows entry of new providers, and increases multinational presence in many markets and more cross-border activities.

In a global economy, power is the ability of a company to command both tangible and intangible assets that create customer loyalty, regardless of location. Independent of size or geographic location, a company can meet global standards and tap into global networks, thrive and act as a world class thinker, maker and trader, by using its greatest assets: its concepts, competence and connections. 


 Номинация "Перевод юридического текста"

 Judges need discipline reform

By  Anita Balakrishnan 

Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau indicated in a letter to  Canadian Justice Minister David Lametti that he expects to hire more Crown lawyers and judges but also has high expectations for the conduct of the bench.

Trudeau on Friday released ministerial mandate letters to Cabinet members, including expectations for the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada.

“I will expect you to work with your colleagues and through established legislative, regulatory and Cabinet processes to deliver on your top priorities,” wrote Trudeau, with bullet points that included: “Develop proposals for reform of Canada’s system of judicial governance and discipline” and “reduce delays across the court system, including providing resources to hire new Crown prosecutors and new judges.” 

Among the priorities outlined by Trudeau were reforming the way judges are disciplined and mandatory training for judges on “sexual assault law, including myths and stereotypes about victims and effects of trauma on victims’ memory; and on unconscious bias and cultural competency.” 

Another mandate was to “provide free legal advice and support to survivors of sexual assault and intimate partner violence.”

The letter also foreshadowed Parliament would get more explicit training on the independence of the office of the attorney general. Lametti was also instructed in the letter to “adopt all of the recommendations put forward by the Honourable Anne McLellan in her recent review of the roles and structure of the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada.” 

McLellan’s report came in the wake of the SNC-Lavalin scandal, and examined whether the offices of attorney general and justice minister should be separated. In August, McLellan said  there was no perfect structure but recommended strengthening the ministerial oaths and training programs to emphasize the rule of law. 

“As Minister of Justice, you will see that the administration of public affairs is in accordance with the law,” wrote Trudeau in the mandate letter. “As Attorney General of Canada, you will uphold the Constitution, the rule of law, and the independence of the judiciary and of the prosecutorial function.”

Other directives impacting the justice sector were: 

  • Make drug treatment courts the default option for first-time non-violent offenders charged only with simple possession 
  • Establish new elder abuse-related offences and penalties in the Criminal Code 
  • Amend the Criminal Code to ban conversion therapy 
  • Establish a program to put courts alongside other social services
  • Reduce organized crime, gang activity, and money laundering through new policies and legislation
  • Respond “immediately” to the recent court ruling regarding the medical assistance in dying framework
  • Firearms policy commitments
  • Make sure Supreme Court of Canada justices are functionally bilingual
  • Establish an independent Criminal Case Review Commission to make it easier and faster for potentially wrongfully convicted people to have their applications reviewed

Additional areas of focus in the letter were on digital privacy, mitigating hate speech and harassment, preventing terrorism and supporting Indigenous peoples. 

The letter included a laundry list of “new online rights” under Cabinet’s mandate: 

  • data portability
  • the ability to withdraw, remove and erase basic personal data from a platform
  • A national advertising registry
  • ability to withdraw consent for the sharing or sale of data
  • the ability to review and challenge the amount of personal data that a company or government has collected
  • proactive data security requirements
  • informing people of data breaches “with appropriate compensation”
  • freedom from online discrimination and harassment

Trudeau’s letter called for legal remedies for victims of hate speech, as well as a partnership with the Minister of Diversity and Inclusion and Youth and the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness to deal with cyberbullying. 

It also tasked Lametti with countering “the rise of ideologically motivated violent extremism and terrorist organizations” and helping with “the creation of the Director of Terrorism Prosecutions.” 

Trudeau also called for the implementation of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples by the end of 2020, building the National Action Plan on Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls and “continuing progress” on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s Calls for Action.

“Many of our most important commitments require partnership with provincial, territorial and municipal governments and Indigenous partners, communities and governments,” said Trudeau in the letter. 


Номинация "Перевод художественного текста"

The Legend of Sleepy Hollow

By Washington Irving

Near the eastern shore of the Hudson, at the broad part of the Hudson river, there lies a small market-town called Greensburg, but which is more generally known by the name of Tarry Town. Not far from this town, perhaps about two miles, there is a little valley among high hills. This is one of the quietest places in the whole world. A small brook glides through it, with just murmur enough to lull one to rest, and the occasional whistle of a quail or tapping of a woodpecker is almost the only sound that ever breaks in the complete calmness.

From the quietness of the place and the peculiar character of its inhabitants, who are descendants from the original Dutch settlers, this isolated valley has long been known by the name of SLEEPY HOLLOW. A drowsy, dreamy influence seems to hang over the land and to pervade the very atmosphere. Some people say that the place was bewitched by an old Indian chief during the early days of the settlement. Certain it is, the place still holds a spell over the minds of the good people, causing them to walk in a continual dreaminess. They are subject to trances and visions, and frequently see strange sights and hear music and voices in the air. The whole neighborhood abounds with local tales, haunted spots, and twilight superstitions; stars shoot and meteors glare more often across the valley than in any other part of the country, and the nightmare seems to make it the favorite place of her walks.

The dominant spirit, however, that haunts this enchanted region is the apparition of a figure on horseback without a head. The ghost is said to be a Hessian trooper whose head had been carried away by a cannonball in a battle during the Revolutionary War, and who is ever seen by the country people hurrying along in the gloom of night as if on the wings of the wind. He is sometimes seen in the valley but more often near a church at no great distance. Indeed, the body of the trooper is believed to have been buried in the churchyard, the ghost rides forth to the scene of battle in nightly search of his head, and that rushing speed with which he sometimes passes along the Hollow is due to his being in a hurry to get back to the churchyard before daybreak.

This spectre is known all around the country by the name of the Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow.

It is remarkable that strangers who ever come to the valley, however wide awake they may have been before they entered that sleepy region, they are sure in a little time to inhale the witching influence of the air and begin to grow imaginative - to dream dreams and see ghosts.

In this valley some person by the name of Ichabod Crane was sent for the purpose of instructing the children. He was a schoolmaster. The nickname of Crane was suitable to his person. He was tall with narrow shoulders, long arms and legs, hands that stuck a mile out of his sleeves, feet that might have served for shovels. His head was small, with huge ears, large green glassy eyes, and a long nose, so that it looked like a weathercock perched upon the roof to tell which way the wind blew. To see him walking along a hill on a windy day, with his clothes bagging and fluttering about him, one might have mistaken him for some scarecrow escaped from a cornfield. 

His school-house was a low building of one large room, made of logs, the windows partly glazed and partly patched with leaves of old copybooks. The school-house stood rather lonely just at the foot of a woody hill, with a brook running close by and a huge birch tree growing at one end of it. From hence the low murmur of his pupils’ voices might be heard in a drowsy summer’s day like the hum of a bee-hive, interrupted now and then by the loud voice of the master in the tone of command, or by the appalling sound of the birch as he urged some naughty boy along the path of knowledge. Truth to say, he was a honest man, and ever bore in mind the golden rule, «Spare the rod and spoil the child.» Ichabod Crane’s scholars certainly were not spoiled.

However he was not cruel; all this he called «doing his duty by their parents;» and he never gave a punishment without following it by the words that «he would remember it and thank him for it the longest day he had to live.»

When school-hours were over he was even the companion and playmate of the larger boys, and on holiday afternoons would accompany some of the smaller ones home who happened to have pretty sisters or good housewives. Indeed it was wise of him to keep on good terms with his pupils. The revenue arising from his school was small, and was not enough to provide him with daily bread, for he was a heavy eater and to help out his maintenance he was boarded and lodged at the houses of the farmers whose children he taught. With these he lived a week at a time, then going the rounds of the neighborhood with all his things tied up in a cotton handkerchief.

Also he assisted the farmers at their farms, helped to make hay, mended the fences, took the horses to water, drove the cows from pasture, and cut wood for the winter fire. He put aside all the dignity which he put on himself in his little empire, the school, and became wonderfully gentle and kind.

The schoolmaster is generally a man of some importance in the female circle of a neighborhood, being considered a gentleman of superior taste. From his half-itinerant life, also, he was a kind of travelling newspaper, carrying the local gossips from house to house, so that his appearance was always greeted with satisfaction. Besides, owing to his erudition and good education he was, considered a man any girl would marry. So, our schoolmaster was quite happy in the smiles of all the country girls.

He was pleased to pass long winter evenings with the old Dutch wives as they sat by the fire, with a row of apples roasting near the hearth, and listen to their marvellous tales of ghosts and goblins, and haunted fields, and haunted brooks, and haunted bridges, and haunted houses, and particularly of the headless horseman, or Galloping Hessian of the Hollow, as they sometimes called him.

But if there was a pleasure in all those tales in the cozy chimney-corner of a chamber full of a glow from the crackling wood-fire, and where, of course, no spectre dared to show its face, it was terrifying to remember them on the way home. What fearful shapes and shadows arose on his path amidst the dim of a snowy night! How often was he frightened by some shrub covered with snow, which, like a sheeted spectre, appeared on his very path! How often did he shrink at the sound of his own steps, and dread to look over his shoulder, lest he should see some ghost coming close behind him! And how often was he thrown into complete dismay by some wind howling among the trees, in the idea that it was the Galloping Hessian on one of his nightly walks!

All these, however, were mere terrors of the night, phantoms of the mind that walk in darkness; yet daylight put an end to all these evils; and he would have passed a pleasant life of it, in despite of the devil and all his works, if his path had not been crossed by a being that causes more trouble to mortal man than ghosts, goblins, and the whole race of witches put together, and that was - a WOMAN. 


Номинация "Перевод публицистического текста"

DolphinsSocial Behavior

Dolphins are often regarded as one of Earth’s most intelligent animals. They are social creatures, living in pods of up to a dozen individuals. In places with a high abundance of food, pods can merge temporarily, forming a superpod; such groupings may exceed 1,000 dolphins. They communicate using a variety of clicks, whistle-like sounds and other vocalizations.

Membership in pods is not rigid; interchange is common. Dolphins can, however, establish strong social bonds; they will stay with injured or ill individuals, even helping them to breathe by bringing them to the surface if needed. This altruism does not appear to be limited to their own species. The dolphin Moko in New Zealand has been observed guiding a female Pygmy Sperm Whale together with her calf out of shallow water where they had stranded several times. They have also been seen protecting swimmers from sharks by swimming circles around the swimmers or charging the sharks to make them go away.

Dolphins also display culture, something long believed to be unique to humans. In May 2005, a discovery in Australia found Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins teaching their young to use tools. They cover their snouts with sponges to protect them while foraging (looking or searching for food or provisions.) Using sponges as mouth protection as well as other transmitted behavior proves dolphins’ intelligence. This knowledge is mostly transferred by mothers to daughters.

Ivory Trade

Ivory trade poses a threat to the very existence of elephants. Ivory hunters were responsible for wiping out elephants in North Africa perhaps about 1,000 years ago, in much of South Africa in the 19th century and most of West Africa by the end of the 20th century. At the peak of the ivory trade, pre 20th century, during the colonization of Africa, around 800 to 1,000 tons of ivory was sent to Europe alone.

Elephant ivory has been exported from Africa and Asia for centuries with records going back to the 14th century BC. Throughout the colonization of Africa ivory was removed, often using slaves to carry the tusks, to be used for piano keys, billiard balls and other expressions of exotic wealth.

Although many ivory traders repeatedly claimed that the problem was habitat loss, it became glaringly clear that the threat was primarily the international ivory trade.

Should there be a legal trade in elephant ivory? This debate has been going on since at least 1989, when the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) voted to “ban” the international trade in ivory after a ferocious wave of poaching in Africa that left hundreds of thousands of elephants butchered.

While some conservationists say that a limited legal ivory trade is needed to satiate demand, especially in China, in a controlled manner, environmental activists ask whether elephants can survive a legal ivory trade. They argue that the 1989 ban must be kept in place to protect elephants, especially now that poaching has once again risen to catastrophic levels.

Ivory Trade

Ivory trade poses a threat to the very existence of elephants. Ivory hunters were responsible for wiping out elephants in North Africa perhaps about 1,000 years ago, in much of South Africa in the 19th century and most of West Africa by the end of the 20th century. At the peak of the ivory trade, pre 20th century, during the colonization of Africa, around 800 to 1,000 tons of ivory was sent to Europe alone.

Elephant ivory has been exported from Africa and Asia for centuries with records going back to the 14th century BC. Throughout the colonization of Africa ivory was removed, often using slaves to carry the tusks, to be used for piano keys, billiard balls and other expressions of exotic wealth.

Although many ivory traders repeatedly claimed that the problem was habitat loss, it became glaringly clear that the threat was primarily the international ivory trade.

Should there be a legal trade in elephant ivory? This debate has been going on since at least 1989, when the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) voted to “ban” the international trade in ivory after a ferocious wave of poaching in Africa that left hundreds of thousands of elephants butchered.

While some conservationists say that a limited legal ivory trade is needed to satiate demand, especially in China, in a controlled manner, environmental activists ask whether elephants can survive a legal ivory trade. They argue that the 1989 ban must be kept in place to protect elephants, especially now that poaching has once again risen to catastrophic levels.

World Water Day

World Water Day is observed on March 22 since 1993. It was declared as such by the United Nations General Assembly. This day was first formally proposed in Agenda of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Observance began in 1993 and has grown significantly ever since.

The UN and its member nations devote this day to implementing UN recommendations and promoting concrete activities within their countries regarding the world’s water resources. Each year, one of various UN agencies involved in water issues takes the lead in promoting and coordinating international activities for World Water Day.

In addition to the UN member states, a number of NGOs promoting clean water and sustainable aquatic habitats have used World Day for Water as a time to focus public attention on the critical water issues of our era. Every three years since 1997, the World Water Council has drawn thousands to participate in its World Water Forum during the week of World Day for Water. Participating agencies and NGOs have highlighted issues such as a billion people being without access to safe water for drinking and the role of gender in family access to safe water. 


 Номинация "Перевод поэтического текста"

Joanna, Wading

(by Timothy Steelle) 

Too frail to swim, she nonetheless

Gingerly lifts her cotton dress

Clear of the lake, so she can wade

Where the descending sun has laid

A net of rippling, molten bands

Across the underwater sands.

 

Her toes dig, curling, in the cool

And fine-grained bottom; minnows school

Before her, tauly unified

In their suspended flash-and-glide;

Blue-brilliantly, a dragonfly

Encounters and skims round her thigh.

 

Despite age, all this still occurs.

The sun’s companionably hers,

Its warmth suffusing blood and flesh,

While its light casts the mobile mesh

Whose glowing cords she swam among

In summertime when she was young.